What’s Your Family’s Distance Learning Style?

A little over a month ago, Trinity’s leadership team began planning its response to what was then an imminent crisis. As recommended by our accrediting organization, the Southern Association for Independent Schools (@SAIS), we began planning our distance learning structure by first establishing our distance learning philosophy. We started with purpose, the why of what we do, before moving on to designing how we would deliver. It was then that Trinity’s leaders committed to our belief in foundation building and joyful learning. We decided that our goal would be to practice and develop foundational skills in a multi-sensory way. This philosophy has guided all decisions, policies, and supports around programming we have implemented since then. This philosophy has served as a source of pride when we are recognized for our framework’s intentionality and developmental appropriateness. It has also grounded us when our decisions around expectations and engagement have been called into question. Now that distance learning through the remainder of this school year has been made official by many schools or stated as highly likely by others, many parents will need to reframe their thinking and establish sustainable work-from-home and distance-learning practices. We are beyond the place where anyone can reasonably consider this time away from school an extended holiday. It is time to think about how we will move learning forward as much as can be expected, given the circumstances. The thought of distance learning, especially while working from home, is unbelievably daunting for so many. In response, I suggest that each family begin with their own philosophy or style and then build their schedule around that.

Over the past three weeks, Trinity’s Academic Leadership Team has received valuable feedback from our families about their circumstances and desires. While we seriously consider all of the feedback, it is always viewed through the lens of our distance learning philosophy. Because family requests have ranged from those that would have teachers provide all lessons online synchronously all day to tearful pleas that we send no more than one assignment a day, we know that every family is facing different challenges and working with different dynamics. I share this to say that your school cannot create the framework you need, because it will not be the framework that is appropriate for many others. So how do you identify your distance learning style and create a structure or schedule around it?

Every family has a culture, similar to the way every organization has a culture. This is not culture related to ethnicity, geographic region, or religion, although all of those things likely influence your family culture. I mean your family’s personality and ways of being, your spoken and unspoken norms and beliefs. Begin by thinking about what is most important to you about your child’s education and your work based on your family’s culture.

Next, consider your context. What resources do you have in terms of technology, child care, and time? How much flexibility do you have with any of your resources?

Finally, think about where you need to be on the continuum of stability and flexibility as well as interdependence and independence. The What’s Your Family’s Distance Learning Style? infographic is built around these ideas and can help families establish the beginning of a framework to suit their beliefs.

I also recommend an excellent article published in Harvard Business Review entitled 3 Tips to Avoid WFH Burnout. It offers suggestions for compartmentalizing responsibilities, managing time, and prioritizing tasks while working from home and facilitating distance learning.

I leave you with a quote I heard today while meditating with the Calm app (one of my practices for self-care). I wish you peace in creating a work-life structure that is true to your beliefs and truly sustainable.

“Peace. It does not mean to be in a place where there is no noise, trouble or hard work. It means to be in the midst of those things and still be calm in your heart.”

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Citations:

Giurge, Laura M., and Vanessa K. Bohns. “3 Tips to Avoid WFH Burnout.” Harvard Business Review, 3 Apr. 2020, hbr.org/2020/04/3-tips-to-avoid-wfh-burnout.

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Reflecting On Our Team's Reaction and Response to COVID-19

What a year this week has been.

Three weeks ago, our school went on spring break. Three weeks ago, the Leadership Team began preparing for COVID-19 to reach our community. Today is the first day since then that I have had a chance to pause and reflect on how our team worked together to keep our community safe and engaged in mission-driven learning.

Several years ago, I had the opportunity to design our school’s digital portfolio system, My Learning. At that time, the digital portfolio as a repository for artifacts of student learning was a budding idea in K-12 education, and Trinity was a pioneer in developing a comprehensive process for elementary-age students. By establishing the purpose of the My Learning portfolio process as deepening student learning and empowering young students through the practice of reflection, we made unique and intentional use of a digital platform otherwise designed for businesses and board rooms. Since then, My Learning has transitioned to a dynamic platform designed for use in schools and easily accessible to parents. See Marsha Harris’s article, Your Child Is Known: The Importance of “My Learning”.

One of the early tools used to facilitate student reflection in My Learning is the “rip it” Reflection Tool. It was inspired by the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy, a classification of ways of thinking used by educators to intentionally engage learners and develop thinking routines. Today, I used it to guide my reflection on one aspect of the past three weeks in order to identify successes and opportunities for growth as we continue on the path of distance learning.

REMEMBER (Recall relevant information): Our head of school called a virtual meeting (the Academic Leadership Team had just left for spring break) to discuss the news and threat of COVID-19. Once mobilized, the Operations department began ordering sanitation supplies and scheduling deep cleaning of the building. The Technology team began preparing equipment that students and teachers would need in a virtual learning environment. The Business office prepared for continuity of business. The Academic Leadership Team began developing a distance learning framework, including a school-wide learning plan template and virtual meeting rooms for all faculty and staff.

When spring break ended and faculty returned to school, the Academic Leadership Team spent the first two days of the week in meetings with faculty to brainstorm ideas and receive feedback about proposed plans. Each hour brought news that indicated the imminent closing of schools. We adjusted our faculty meeting schedule on Wednesday to share the school’s distance learning vision, provide information, and facilitate collaborative planning time. On Thursday afternoon, we announced our closing which was scheduled to begin on Monday. Students received take-home folders the teachers filled with resources on Friday. While still teaching their students during the day, teaching teams collaboratively created a week of grade level learning plans with daily lessons in reading, writing, and mathematics as well as movement and a selection of every Specials class we offer. Plans were completed and posted for families on Monday morning at 8 am.

Distance learning vision: Develop and practice foundational skills through multi-sensory learning experiences

IDENTIFY (Construct meaning): It has never been so clear to me as it was over the past three weeks how closely we work as a team at Trinity to react and respond to the needs of the community. There were some immediate actions taken to keep everyone physically safe and healthy. There were many steps taken to anticipate needs and proactively set up structures that would later respond to the needs of students, families, and employees. This is an important point to consider as we think about decisions that need to be made based on rapid-pace news cycles and feedback. When are we reacting to protect and preserve? When are we responding to underlying needs by building structures, frameworks, and processes?

PUT IT TOGETHER (Analyze what you see): This reminds me of conversations educators regularly have about classroom management and discipline. Some teachers focus a bit more on behavior. How do we enforce the policies put in place to keep students safe and productive? Some teachers focus more on social-emotional learning. How do we create the environment and develop the skills that foster joyful and meaningful learning? It also reminds me of an incident with my son’s turtle, who has recently been escaping from his tank. Our initial reaction to the escape was to create a barrier that would keep the turtle in the tank because he could get hurt falling to the ground or get wedged between the wall and the tank. Then, we started talking about why the turtle is now trying to escape after many years of peaceful existence in the tank. We checked his water temperature and his filter and made adjustments. We spent some time playing with him.

PICK IT APART (Evaluate what you learned): My takeaway is not surprising. It is that both reactions and responses are necessary and essential for the safety and sustainability of our community. Every community must react to changes in a way that will protect its members and maintain their safety. Communities must also think deeply about the longer term needs of its members, anticipating and addressing underlying issues. I am now thinking about how to approach change through two lenses, safety and sustainability.

PLAN TO USE IT (Create a plan): When approaching a challenge or change, I will ask myself and my team two questions: What do we need right now? What do we need going forward?

Distance Learning Week 2 was posted this afternoon. Members of the Academic Leadership Team (Rhonda Mitchell @rgmteach, Sarah Barton Thomas @teach2connect, Jill Gough @jgough, and Marsha Harris @marshamac74) have already been reacting and responding to teacher and parent needs today. I’m grateful to be a member of an incredible community and a part of such a strong team.


Citations:

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Breathe: Have the presence of mind

What is one of the most important life skills impacting health, relationships, and achievement? Self-regulation.

Self-regulation can be broadly defined as the ability to manage and control oneself. This relates to one’s emotions (moods and feelings) as well as one’s behaviors (actions). It is recognizing when you are experiencing stress or over excitement. It is how you use tools and strategies to adjust your moods and work through feelings. It is exhibiting appropriate behaviors in spite of what you are feeling.

As educators and/or parents, we teach self-regulation to children constantly. It’s what we are doing when we help them complete a task they don’t feel like doing but should (eg. sharing and cleaning up after themselves). It’s also what we are doing when we help children work through emotions such as sadness or frustration.

It’s important to note that research is increasingly showing the connection between a child’s self-regulation and that of their adult caretakers. Meaning, we influence a child’s self-regulation not just through our teaching, but also through our modeling and practice of self-regulation skills. At any moment, how we manage our own emotions and behaviors – that show up in the words and tone we use or through the thoughtful or impulsive decisions we make – can determine how a child responds. It is a cyclical process. So, how can we as the more social-emotionally skilled person in an interaction with a child manage our own emotions and behaviors and support him/her to a favorable outcome? Breathe.

One of my favorite TEDTalks is Breathing happiness by Emma Seppälä. In this Talk, Seppälä uses examples of work with military in combat and veterans experiencing PTSD to explain how we can manage our breathing to change our mood and gain “the presence of mind” to negotiate the most difficult and stressful situations. Seppälä describes the strategy of “square breathing” (inhaling for a count of four, holding for a count of four, exhaling for a count of four, holding for a count of four and repeating) as a way to lower the heart rate and gain composure. I have found this strategy to be a helpful tool to use with students and for myself. Note: I alter the language when working with young students to “Suck in like you are drinking a juice box; hold it. Now, blow out like birthday candles.”

Self-regulation is a skill we continue to develop throughout adulthood. Square breathing is hopefully a helpful tool you can add to your belt. I wish you a wonderful school year and happy breathing!

[Cross posted on Flourish]

 

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Denial: Guiding families through the Four Stages of Parent Grief

In a previous post, I wrote about the Four Stages of Parent Grief and what educators should know about how parents process news of their child’s challenges.  In the following posts I will outline how educators can guide parents to understanding concerns so everyone’s focus can shift to partnering in support of student needs.

Stages of Parent Grief

Sometimes parents are not ready to see the challenges about their child being described by teachers or administrators.  Parents may make excuses for behaviors or provide evidence that appears to conflict with the claims being presented.  This is a natural response to hearing challenging information.  The human brain is wired to protect us from harm and that means responding by fighting, fleeing, or freezing.  When teachers share concerns with parents, that information can be subconsciously interpreted as an attack.  What parents hear the teacher say is that something is wrong with their child, the one they work so hard to nurture.  If something is wrong with their child, then something is wrong with their parenting practices and/or with them as individuals.  In defense of the lovely being they are working really hard to raise and themselves, they deny what they are hearing is true.

Denial may appear as excuses or rebuttals such as… Of course my child can recognize the letters of the alphabet; we read books together at night religiously.  He most certainly can pay attention for periods of time; he plays with Legos for hours.  She could not possibly have issues with peers because everyone loves her; she is constantly being invited to playdates.  Look at this piece of writing he made this weekend.  I just sent you a video of her counting to 100.  Does that sound familiar?  Have you ever said or at least thought that as a parent?

Below are some ways I have found to think about and approach parents when concerns need to be shared.


 

Look for patterns; they tell a story.  There are always patterns.  There are even consistencies in the inconsistencies.  Look for patterns.

My daughter has many food and environmental allergies.  I’ve known about them since she was a baby and I took her to the doctor for insight into what could be causing a perpetually runny nose and randomly appearing hives.  It turns out grits and eggs for breakfast will do that when a person is allergic to eggs.  Oops.

We’ve collectively managed her allergies for 14 years.  She does an outstanding job with the food portion, advocating for herself and protecting herself when necessary.  The environmental allergens are trickier because they aren’t always visible, and it often takes a higher level of alertness than a child might have to prevent or identify reactions to them.  So, I’ve especially helped her manage that piece for 14 years; and, still I didn’t see the pattern that led to her most recent episode.

  • Week 1:  My daughter continuously complained of stomachaches, so we went to urgent care and received a diagnosis of reflux.  Me:  Where did that come from?
  • Week 2:  She came home from school early several times because of headaches, so we went to urgent care and received a diagnosis of sinus infection.  Me:  Nasty weather.
  • Week 3:  She crawled into my bed and cried through the night about her ears, and head, and stomach; we went to the children’s hospital and received a diagnosis of sinus infection and double ear infection.  Me:  Things are not getting better.  I don’t know what to do. 
  • Week 4:  She’s miserable.  I’m desperate.  We’re both exhausted.    Me:  No more.

Finally, I took my daughter back to the doctor who treated her when she was a baby.  The first thing she said was, “Let’s step back and look at her history.”  Those words ignited a flash of memories of tests, procedures, medicine, and conversations with doctors.  After talking through a series of questions, we connected all of it, the stomachaches, the headaches, and the earaches, to her allergies.  Of course!  While some of the symptoms presented differently than they had in the past, the timing and the triggers remained consistent.  Look for patterns.

I tell this story because even veteran educators sometimes miss the patterns.  Instead, we address the symptoms in the moment and then provide parents fractured information once  we’ve reached our breaking point, maybe after being alarmed at the results of a student assessment or exasperated by a student’s most recent behavior.  Rapid firing a list of issues to parents may seem completely justified to you as the educator because you’ve been feeling the accumulation of concern over time, but it feels threatening and disjointed to parents.  Instead, we have to communicate holistically what we are seeing so parents can see it too.

Even still, no matter how well we share concerns with parents, they may still go through a period of denial.  Regardless, it is our responsibility to guide them to acceptance more efficiently.  The best way to do that is through clear and intentional communications.  Below are some methods that have worked well for me.

Communicating Concerns to Parents

Clarity

  • Step back.  List or talk out instances or examples of issues you’ve noted.  Analyze what you are seeing.  Look for a pattern or trigger.  Is it around timing?  Maybe those peer conflicts seem random but are really related to difficulty transitioning from one activity to another.  Is it related to a particular subject?  Maybe a child is becoming silly and playing with friends as a tactic to avoid writing.  This may take consulting with someone who is not as close to the daily interactions or someone who has a history with the student.  Before communicating with parents, articulate to yourself the essence of the concern and why it is concerning (how it is impacting the child or class).
  • Then, if you are truly concerned, use the word concern. In a person-to-person conversation (by phone or in person), explain that you have concerns that you want to share.  I placed clarity above compassion in this list because sometimes our compassion clouds our judgement and subsequent ability to communicate concisely.  This does not mean we should be callous, but veiled comments in the hallway and coded messages in progress reports do not equate to clarity.  Only teachers know what is meant by “sometimes has difficulty with” and “developing his ability to”.

Consistency

  • Be on the same page.  If you are a teaching team, you must talk to each other first (and include your administrator as necessary) to develop a common understanding of the challenge and related messaging.  Putting parents on an emotional rollercoaster of mixed messaging won’t help a child receive the support they need.
  • This is not a time to bombard parents with examples.  No parent needs or truly wants a daily email detailing the inappropriate behaviors their child displayed or the tremendous difficulty they had with reading – no matter what they say they want.  Go into a conversation about concerns with a plan of action.  Set a goal that everyone can work toward and agree to check in at a specified time to discuss progress and adjustments.  This might mean a weekly email or even daily goals chart, but it should be a balanced sharing of observations and reflections.

Compassion

  • This is last on the list but of paramount importance.  When parents don’t see it yet, be patient.  They need to be shown the pattern and to hear a story unfold that is told in a kind and caring way, a way that says you are not judging or forecasting certain failure.  They need to feel that you are working with them on their child’s behalf.
  • One way to communicate concern and hope is through the sandwich method (aka a compliment sandwich).  Dan Pink shares research in his book, When, that says people prefer to receive bad news before good news and that “given a choice, human beings prefer endings that elevate.”  (Audible clip) Yes, and I also know that parents need to feel that the teachers caring for their child each day appreciate their strengths and efforts.  Starting with concerns feels deficit focused rather than solutions focused.  That is why I think it is important to discuss everyone’s observations of a child’s strengths, efforts, and growth (good news), then share concerns (so called bad news), and end by discussing a plan for working together to support the child because that’s our ultimate shared goal (an elevated ending).

Communicating concerns is not easy for anyone, but it is necessary in order to move learning forward.  Parents may still experience anger and sadness before getting to acceptance, but clarity, consistency, and compassion will help everyone through the process.


References:

Pink, D. H. (2018). When: The scientific secrets of perfect timing. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.

 

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The Four Stages of Parent Grief: What educators should know about how parents process news of their child’s developmental challenges

When the school’s phone number pops up on the caller ID, any parent’s initial reaction is panic.  My first-born child had probably been in childcare for less than a month when they called me to tell me there was a problem.

School administrator: “Hi, Ms. Mitchell.  Donovan has conjunctivitis.”

As a new parent, I had no idea of what conjunctivitis was but it sounded terrible. Apparently, I channel my grandmother (who was known to use a few expletives) when I am not thinking rationally and responded in a less than professional way.

Me:  “No the ___ he doesn’t.  What is that, and who are you to diagnose this?”

Fortunately, the administrator was a seasoned professional that recognized the terror in a young, new mother’s voice.  She responded with a chuckle, “It’s pink eye; he just needs to go to the doctor for eye drops.”  Feeling only slightly embarrassed and mostly sad for my sweet baby boy, I set out to pick him up to address what I learned was a common childhood illness.

The feelings that surged through me during those seconds are the feelings that parents regularly experience when educators tell them their child is having developmental challenges. They are feelings of denial, anger, sadness, and acceptance – what I call the stages of parent grief.  Often sequential, sometimes cyclical, and rarely lasting a mere few seconds, these stages are important for an educator to understand so we can appropriately manage our messaging and counsel families with compassion.

In this post, I summarize the emotions and behaviors I have observed parents experience when processing messages from the school about their child’s developmental challenges.  In subsequent posts, I will share ways I have found parents and educators can work together through the stages to support students in need.

Stages of Parent Grief

Stages of Parent Grief

Denial – In this stage, parents are not yet ready to see the challenges being described by the teachers/administrators.  Parents may make excuses for behaviors or provide evidence that appears to conflict with the claims being presented.

 Anger – Parents may feel personally attacked by teachers or administrators and blame the environment, including teaching practices, structures and policies, and other children for any issues being described.  At this stage, there is some recognition that the issues exist, but efforts are being made by the parent to protect the child from others.

Sadness – This stage usually follows a quiet period.  Parents have had time to talk to others they trust, see the issues being described, and they too believe there is an issue.    They don’t know what to do about it and are unsure of outcomes.  This stage might include feelings of guilt.

Acceptance – Parents are ready to move forward with addressing the challenges described.  They are open to dialogue and willing to take some action.

 
Again, I have found that these stages are often sequential but sometimes cyclical, especially during discussion about how to address challenges.  My point in sharing these stages is that without awareness of them, educators may find themselves reacting to parent emotions rather than communicating strategically to support families.  Most importantly, it is a reminder that in spite of emotions, educators and parents are on the same team and share goals of good health, happiness, and achievement for students.

Stay tuned for subsequent posts on each stage of grief and how to help families move through them.

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Which one doesn’t belong? Math from a diversity, equity, and inclusion lens

Early childhood mathematics development is finally getting the attention it deserves.  As researchers and educators understand more about how young children learn math, schools are implementing curricula that extend far beyond the 58 seconds of rote counting that had been casually sprinkled throughout traditional preschool days.  We now know that early number sense is crucial for later, more advanced math and that developing skills such as subitizing strengthens students’ abilities to think flexibly and truly understand the concept of quantity.  As a result, math practices have become far more robust, focusing as much on the processes of student thinking as on the accuracy of the results.

IMG_4723One of my favorite math games for making student thinking visible and developing the mathematical practice of constructing a viable argument is called “Which one doesn’t belong?”, originally created as a children’s picture book by Christopher Danielson.  The book contains sets of pictures that prompt students to notice the properties of shapes and then provide justification for their observations about which one doesn’t belong with the others.  The best part about the activity is that there is no one “right” answer.  There are many ways that one can justify their answer, allowing students to hear different perspectives and consider new ways of thinking.  With puzzles that extend far beyond shapes, the activity has become wildly popular.  People across academic disciplines regularly share new ideas and thinking on social media through #WODB.  It is amazing to see just how creative people are in compiling a group for comparison, and equally remarkable to witness how children of all ages can identify patterns and present arguments utilizing precise vocabulary.

IMG_4726I love what this activity does to develop critical thinking and communication skills.  So, I struggle with the lingering feeling of unease that I have maintained since the very first time I watched a teacher facilitate the activity with a group of young students.  It’s the language.  “Which one doesn’t belong?” is difficult to accept when looking out at a classroom full of children that are moment-by-moment authoring their identities with the language we use.  My unease became further strengthened as I witnessed a group of Pre-K students looking at a “Which one doesn’t belong” poster, and I found myself sympathizing with the one African American child in the group listening to someone say “the black one doesn’t belong because it isn’t white”.

IMG_4727 2

While the shapes presented for comparison in this activity are not people, the process of identifying what is the same and different transfers easily in young minds that are building background knowledge and shaping ideas about how the world works.  As a natural process for keeping up with the abundance of information we face every day, our brains rely on what we’ve experienced or what we have come to believe is true to make decisions about new situations.  Also, natural is the desire to associate with people like us.  So with that in mind I wonder, are we inadvertently promoting the identification of and, more disturbingly, exclusion of things that are different by asking for what doesn’t “belong”?

I’ve been thinking about what else we could ask students that would still promote critical thinking, pattern recognition, and communication skills.  If we asked, “What can you find that is the same?”, students would be able to acknowledge at least one basic way that all four pictures are related before beginning to focus on their differences.  They are all shapes.  Or we might ask, “Which one is different?”, because it gives us the opportunity to talk about how everyone is different, and different is not bad.  Neither of these questions is quite as succinct as “Which one doesn’t belong?”, but I’d like us to consider them and others anyway.

As educators, we work carefully to integrate academic and social-emotional learning, because research shows that they cannot be separated.  In order to learn, students must feel safe and connected to their learning community.  Knowing that words matter in how we shape identity and view others, educators must be mindful of the questions they ask and the responses they might elicit.  So, how can we adjust this activity to be sensitive to the girl, the student of color, the non-athletic boy, or __________, who will hear a description of themselves when the class is asked to describe which one doesn’t belong?

This post is not a critique of any individual, idea, or practice.  It is an attempt to build awareness and prompt discussion about how we can intentionally use language to develop flexible math thinking and relational thinking.  I realize that after reading this, some people will naturally want to step back from the “Which one doesn’t belong?” activity out of fear or discomfort.  Please don’t.  Lean into that discomfort and be brave.  This is what being a reflective practitioner is all about.

 

 

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Passing Along Our Faith

I have very few memories of showing anyone my report card during my school years. No one checked that I did my homework or studied for a test. It wasn’t due to a lack of interest in my academic success. My family understood the importance of a quality education, and we lived in a neighborhood that provided the best public education available in the city. Grades in school were simply not their measure of success.

I do remember many talks with my family about making good choices – choices about who I considered a friend (because the answer to their question of “Who are their people?” when I mentioned a new name provided my family with all they needed to know about this person; choices in how I presented myself to others (because respect and decency came before anything else); and choices about what I did with my time (I still hear my grandmother saying “Make sure you do something with yourself.”). It was always clear to me that people make choices in life, and I was called to reflect on mine regularly.

My family collectively worked to provide me with opportunities, modeled and explicitly taught what they believed were core character traits and habits of mind, and they regularly expressed their faith in me to be my best self. The message of faith was so prevalent that it transferred to me, and I developed faith in myself.

My family’s faith built my confidence by reminding me of the skills, abilities, and accomplishments I’d worked to attain. It caused me to set goals for myself and develop a sense of responsibility. It motivated me to work through difficulties and setbacks so I could live up to the expectations that they set for me and I adopted for myself.

As parents and educators, we work to provide children with the best learning experiences and opportunities we can provide. We strive to cultivate curious, lifelong learners and often find ourselves wondering what more we can do to prepare our children to be thoughtful, contributing members of society. This question persists in my mind as a school administrator and parent of two teenagers.

As I was thinking about my grandmother recently, I found myself wondering what would happen if we were more intentional about passing along our faith to children – to our own and other’s.  I don’t mean shallow praise or fleeting compliments but empowering messages of belief and expectation.

What if we shared our faith in them and their abilities, imploring them to believe in their own worth and beauty in spite of what others may say about them? What would come of regularly reminding children of the skills they have developed and the knowledge they have acquired, encouraging them to stand firmly on their past efforts and accomplishments? What about deliberately coaching them to look to examples of those who came before them as evidence of what is possible and as motivation to persevere when times are hard? Would it build them up inside?

Then, what if we made it clear to them that our faith is not hope alone but is coupled with expectation and a history of planning, preparation, and sacrifice? How would they feel about a warning that we’ll be trusting them to do something with themselves – something greater for all of us. What if our words and actions taught them that life is full of choices and then we gave them some to practice so they would know for themselves. Would this promote a sense of responsibility and agency?

Research on locus of control and the Adlerian theory were not on my family’s reading list. Yet the ideas of choice and autonomy promoting motivation (internal locus of control or self-determination) and the need for a sense of belonging along with contribution (Positive Discipline) resonate with me as a critical part of my childhood experience. Since these practices shaped me so strongly, I will use them more intentionally in my own parenting and teaching practices. However, please note that I will continue to check progress reports.

(cross posted at http://blogs.trinityatl.org/flourish/)


Suggested Reading:

Fostering Independence in Children

Frequently Asked Questions About Positive Discipline

 

 

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